Tag Archives: infectious disease

Happy Christmas and best wishes for the new decade from the Paediatric Pearls team, December 2019

A bit of a viral soup this month with articles on ‘flu vaccines, how long should children have off school when unwell, NAFLD, and dermatomyositis.  Do leave comments below.

August 2019 Paediatric Pearls newsletter uploaded

More on the coca-cola urine story this month, NF type I, cerebellar ataxia and restless legs syndrome.  Do leave comments below.

July 2019 PDF

July 2019:  Honing in on coca cola coloured urine this month and a closer look at armpits.  Links to suitable child safeguarding CPD on harmful sexual behaviour and a look at the ANA test.  Do leave comments below.

January 2019 newsletter

Genetics this month and an explanation of the microarray test.  Managing measles contacts in the “lessons from the front line” section, use of a smartphone app for recording palpitations and the start of a new dermatology series – skin manifestations of systemic disease.  Do leave comments below.

December 2018 PDF

Christmas disease this month, acute psychosis in children, an Emoji guide to the workings of the facial nerve, sleep hygiene and the start of a 2 part series on measles.  Happy New Year and do leave comments below!

Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS)

With thanks to Dr David Gardiner, one of our current paediatric FY2 doctors at Homerton University Hospital, for updating us on HUS.

News story in 1999
News story from 2018.  Less than 3% of patients die of HUS but 20-30% experience adverse renal outcomes.  Think about it in children with bloody diarrhoea and, often, no fever.

Presentation:

  • Profuse diarrhoea that typically turns bloody after 1-3 days
  • Abdominal pain (crampy)
  • Vomiting
  • Fever (sometimes)
  • Oedema
  • Reduced urine output (abrupt onset) but also polyuria/normal urine output (rarer)
  • Neurological complications: seizure, coma, cranial nerve palsies, confusion, hallucinations
  • Classic triad – anaemia, uraemia and thrombocytopaenia
  • Most common in children under the age of 5

Investigations:

  • B/P – hypertension
  • Blood film: Fragmentation and signs of haemolysis (Coombs test negative)
  • Raised WCC and neutrophils, low platelets, low Hb
  • Raised LDH
  • Clotting screen typically normal (cf DIC)
  • Raised bilirubin, low albumin
  • Urea and creatinine raised
  • Stool for PCR E.Coli

Management:

  • Refer to secondary care urgently
  • Strict input/output fluid monitoring
  • Correction of anaemia
  • Correction of electrolyte imbalances
  • Antihypertensive therapy if required
  • Dialysis
  • Furosemide to induce diuresis
  • Report to PHE – can’t go back to school until 2 negative stool samples

More resources:

Kidney Research website on HUS

https://patient.info/doctor/haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome-pro#ref-8

September 2018 PDF content

September’s newsletter reminds us of the CPD requirements for child safeguarding for all of us, warns us of the dangers of missing Kawasaki Disease, talks about PHE’s #askaboutasthma campaign and describes the differences between fever and sepsis.  Do leave comments below:

July 2018 newsletter published

July 2018 brings HEADSSS as a communication tool in adolescent medicine this month, vaccine hesitancy, chikungunya, empyemas, a good headache course coming to London and appropriate use of the EEG.  Please do leave comments below.

June 2018 PDF published

June 2018 features include the rotavirus immunisation, febrile myoclonus, investigating normochromic anaemia, complications of sinusitis and the first in our adolescence series.  Please do leave comments below:

April 2018 newsletter uploaded

NICE on Lyme disease this month – just in time for the weather to pick up and the tics to start biting.  Also a reminder on the risk factors for SIDS, what to do in a terrorist attack, how to manage a child with a non-blanching rash and a discussion on the use of the antistreptolysin O titre.  Do leave comments below: